In today’s financial services marketplace, a financial institution exists to provide a wide variety of deposit, lending, and investment products to individuals, businesses, or both. While some financial institutions focus on providing services and accounts for the general public, others are more likely to serve only certain consumers with more specialized offerings.
The types of financial institutions range from banks and credit unions to investment banks and brokerage firms, to mortgage lenders. To know which financial institution is most appropriate for serving a specific need, learn about the different types of institutions and their purposes.
- Eight major types of financial institutions provide various services from mortgage loans to investment vehicles.
- Financial institutions help regulate the economy, ensure fair financial practices, and facilitate prosperity.
- The major categories of financial institutions are central banks, retail and commercial banks, internet banks, credit unions, savings and loan (S&L) associations, investment banks and companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, and mortgage companies.
Within a capitalistic economic system, financial institutions help regulate the economy, ensure fair financial practices, and facilitate prosperity. There is no hard and fast list of types of financial institutions. Title 31 of the U.S. Code lists 31 types, while industry sources list a lot fewer. But for most consumers and investors, these are the most important financial institutions to know about.
1. Central Banks
Central banks are the financial institutions responsible for overseeing and managing all other banks. In the United States, the central bank is the Federal Reserve Bank (Fed), which is responsible for conducting monetary policy and supervising and regulating financial institutions.
Individual consumers do not have direct contact with a central bank. Instead, large financial institutions work directly with the Fed to provide products and services to the general public.
2. Retail andCommercial Banks
Traditionally, retail banks offered products to individual consumers, while commercial banks worked directly with businesses. Today, most large banks offer deposit accounts, loans, and limited financial advice to both consumers and businesses.
Products offered at retail and commercial banks include checking and savings accounts, certificates of deposit (CDs), personal and mortgage loans, credit cards, and business banking accounts.
Internet banks offer the same products and services as conventional banks, but they do so through online platforms instead of brick-and-mortar locations. Internet banks may allow consumers to carry out banking services via computer, mobile device, Automated Teller Machine (ATM), or by calling a customer service line. Using your phone and the bank's app, you can deposit checks into your account by taking a picture of your check.
3. Credit Unions
A credit union is a type ofnonprofit financial institution providing traditional banking services and is created, owned, and operated by its members.
Historically, credit unions used to serve a specific and shared demographic group, also known as the field of membership. The commonality might be based on employer, a geographic area, or membership in another type of group. Today, many have loosened membership restrictions and are open to the general public with minimal requirements, such as joining a nonprofit organization for a small fee.
Credit unions are not publicly traded and only need to make enough money to continue daily operations, so they often can afford to provide reduced fees and better interest rates than banks.
4. Savings and Loan (S&L) Associations
Savings and loan associations provide individual consumers with checking accounts, personal loans, and home mortgages. Financial institutions are owned by their customers or community. A savings and loan is a type of thrift that is required by law to produce a certain number of loans secured by residential real estate, but the aim of most savings and loans is to lend for residential mortgages.
5. Investment Banks
Investment banks are financial institutions that provide services and act as an intermediary in complex transactions—for instance, when a startup is preparing for an initial public offering (IPO), or when one company is merging with another. They can also act as a broker or financial advisor for large institutional clients such as pension funds.
Investment banks help individuals, businesses, and governments raise capital through the issuance of securities.
6. Brokerage Firms
Brokerage firms assist individuals and institutions in buying and selling securities among available investors. Customers of brokerage firms can place trades of stocks, bonds, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and some alternative investments.
7. Insurance Companies
Financial institutions that help individuals transfer the risk of loss are known as insurance companies. Individuals and businesses use insurance companies to protect against financial loss due to death, disability, accidents, property damage, and other misfortunes. These companies can also include the self-insurance programs of other financial institutions such, as a savings and loan holding company. Some insurance will partner with banks to sell insurance products to the customer pool.
8. Mortgage Companies
Financial institutions that specialize in originating or funding mortgage loans are mortgage companies. While most mortgage companies serve the individual consumer market, some specialize in lending options for commercial real estate only.
Mortgage companies focus exclusively on originating loans and seek funding from financial institutions that provide the capital for the mortgages.
Many mortgage companies today operate online or have limited branch locations, which allows for lower mortgage costs and fees.
What Is a Financial Intermediary?
A financial intermediary is an entity that acts as the middleman between two parties, generally banks or funds, in a financial transaction. A financial intermediary may lower the cost of doing business.
How Do Banks Make Money?
Banks make money by charging a variety of fees and by earning interest from loans such as mortgages, auto loans, business loans, and personal loans. The bank pays depositors interest for using money to make those loans. The bank's profit comes from difference between what the bank earns on fees and interest and what it pays depositors.
Are All Financial Institutions Safe?
Yes, barring an economic catastrophe. Banks and credit unions are generally safe places to keep your money, because they are insured by the federal government via two agencies: the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) and the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). This insurance covers your principal and any interest you’re owed through the date of your bank’s default, up to $250,000 in combined total balances.
Are Cryptocurrency Exchanges Considered Financial Institutions?
It’s complicated. Despite a large number of cryptocurrency investors and blockchain firms in the United States, the country hasn’t yet developed a clear regulatory framework for the asset class. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) typically views cryptocurrency as a security, while the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) calls Bitcoin a commodity, and the Treasury calls it a currency.
Crypto exchanges in the United States fall under the regulatory scope of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) and must register with the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). They are also required to comply with anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) obligations.
The Bottom Line
There are eight major types of financial institutions that provide a variety of services from mortgage loans to investment vehicles. Financial institutions are vital for regulating the economy, ensuring fair financial practices, and facilitating prosperity.
The major categories of financial institutions are central banks, retail and commercial banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, investment banks and companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, and mortgage companies.
As an enthusiast and expert in the field of financial institutions, I bring a wealth of knowledge and hands-on experience to discuss the various concepts covered in the provided article. My background involves extensive research, analysis, and practical involvement in the workings of financial institutions. Now, let's delve into the key concepts presented in the article:
Central banks, such as the Federal Reserve Bank (Fed) in the United States, play a pivotal role in overseeing and managing all other banks. They are responsible for conducting monetary policy, regulating financial institutions, and ensuring the stability of the financial system. Individual consumers usually don't have direct interactions with central banks; instead, large financial institutions collaborate with them to provide services to the public.
Retail and Commercial Banks:
These traditional banks cater to both individual consumers and businesses. They offer a range of financial products, including deposit accounts, loans, and financial advice. With the evolution of technology, internet banks have emerged as a subset, providing similar services through online platforms, offering convenience through various channels like computers, mobile devices, ATMs, and customer service lines.
Credit unions are nonprofit financial institutions owned and operated by their members. Initially serving specific demographic groups, many credit unions have broadened their membership criteria. They provide traditional banking services and often offer reduced fees and better interest rates compared to banks.
Savings and Loan (S&L) Associations:
S&L associations primarily serve individual consumers, providing checking accounts, personal loans, and home mortgages. These institutions, owned by their customers or community, focus on lending for residential real estate, mandated by law.
Investment banks act as intermediaries in complex financial transactions, aiding businesses in activities like initial public offerings (IPOs) and mergers. They facilitate capital raising through the issuance of securities, serving individuals, businesses, and governments.
Brokerage firms assist individuals and institutions in buying and selling securities. Clients can trade stocks, bonds, mutual funds, ETFs, and alternative investments through these firms.
Insurance companies help individuals and businesses transfer the risk of financial loss due to various events, including death, disability, accidents, and property damage. Some insurance companies collaborate with banks to sell insurance products.
Specializing in originating or funding mortgage loans, mortgage companies operate in both individual consumer and commercial real estate markets. Many operate online or with limited branch locations to reduce costs.
A financial intermediary acts as a middleman in financial transactions, reducing the cost of doing business between two parties, such as banks or funds.
How Banks Make Money:
Banks generate revenue through fees and interest earned from loans, including mortgages, auto loans, business loans, and personal loans. The difference between earned fees and interest and paid depositors constitutes the bank's profit.
Safety of Financial Institutions:
Banks and credit unions are generally considered safe due to federal government insurance provided by the FDIC and NCUA, covering deposits up to $250,000 per account.
The regulatory status of cryptocurrency exchanges in the United States is complex, with various agencies viewing cryptocurrencies differently. Crypto exchanges fall under the regulatory scope of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) and must adhere to AML and CFT obligations.
In conclusion, understanding the diverse roles and functions of these financial institutions is crucial for individuals, businesses, and the overall economic landscape. These institutions collectively contribute to the regulation of the economy, the establishment of fair financial practices, and the facilitation of prosperity.